These fact cards are designed to help students attain mastery of their subtraction facts through 20. Students must have mastery (automatic recall) of their math facts so that they can focus on the harder problem solving processes.

A student has **automatic recall** of a fact when he or she has practiced the fact enough with effective strategies to be able to produce a correct answer immediately. The student knows the fact **automatically** when he or she no longer needs a strategy to figure it out; he or she no longer has to pause and think.

### How are these cards different from “flash” cards?

- Self-teaching, strategy-based solutions on the back, not just the answers!
- Based on the Jerome Bruner instructional approach of teaching math in overlapping stages of Concrete (real objects) to Pictorial (drawing) to Abstract (symbols) for conceptual understanding.
- Two or three step problem solving strategies are used to improve visualization, working memory and sequential processing skills. No more rote memorization without understanding the process!
- Pictorial solutions are used to visualize the process of breaking the problem into easier steps. No more guessing!
- Multiple strategies are modeled so that the student learns the easiest, fastest strategies for a given problem type. A student will often use fingers because there are too many steps in his or her strategy. No more fingers!

“Can we break 14 into two parts, 10 and 4? Can we subtract 8 from one of these parts? 10 take away 8 leaves 2. What else is left in the number 14? Can we add the rest, which is 4, to 2? 4 and 2 makes 6.” This strategy, demonstrated with a number bond picture, is called subtracting from the 10.

By using this two-step mental process, students not only master math facts but improves working memory and sequential processing skills.

A student should progress through the fact card arithmetic levels in the sequence below. He or she must have mastery of prior levels before progressing to the next level.

- Number Relationship Cards
- Addition through 10 Cards
- Subtraction through 10 Cards
- Addition through 20 Cards
- Subtraction through 20 Cards
- Multiplication Level 1 Cards
- Division Level 1 Cards
- Multiplication Level 2 Cards
- Division Level 2 Cards